ker-1, kor-, kr-


ker-1, kor-, kr-
    ker-1, kor-, kr-
    English meaning: a kind of sound (hoarse shrieking, etc..), *crane
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘schallnachahmung for heisere, rauhe Töne, solche Tierstimmen and die sie ausstoßenden Tiere”
    Note: Root ker-1, kor-, kr- : “a kind of sound (hoarse shrieking, etc..), *crane” derived from Root ger-2 : “to shriek (in expr. forms), *crane”.
    Note: anlaut mostly k-, rare k̂- also with beweglichem s- : (s)ker-.
    Material: I. O.Ind. karaṭa- m. “crow” (?), karüyikü “a kind of crane “. Gk. κόραξ, -ακος m. “raven”, κοράκιον “bill, beak, neb of raven “ (*kor-n̥-k-, compare Lat. cor-n-īx), σκορακίζω “behandele schimpflich (from ἐς κόρακας βάλλειν under likewise), κορώνη “crow”, κόραφος ποιὸς ὄρνις Hes. (*kor-n̥-bhos); κορκορυγή “Kollern in Leibe”; Lat. corvus “raven”, cornīx, -īcis “crow”, Umbr. curnüco “cornicem” (-īk- besides -ük-); Specht, IE Decl. 118, 161 places whereas corvus and cornīx zur color root ker-; Cz. krákorati “ gaggle, cackle, chitchat, talk, snicker “ (*kor-kor-, compare κορκορυγή), Serb. krakoriti “gracillare”, Clr. kerekoríty “kollern, coo “. see also kar- “loud praise “. 1. Dental extensions: Älter Dan. skrade “rattle, clash, röcheln”, Swe. dial. skrata ‘sound”, Nor. dial. skrata “ gaggle, cackle, chitchat, talk, snicker, scold, chide, loud lachen”, skratla “rattle, clash”, Swe. skratta “lachen”, Dan. skratte “einen gesprungenen Ton give”. 2. guttural extensions: A. Auf -k- (broken reduplication): kerk-, krek-, krok-: O.Ind. kr̥kara-, krakara-, kr̥kaṇa- m. “a kind of partridge, game bird “, kŕ̥ka-vüku- m. “rooster, cock”, kr̥kaṣü, kr̥külikü “bird name”; Av. kahrkatüt- f. “rooster, cock”, Pers. kärk “ chicken “, Av. kahrküsa- m. “ vulture, actually Hähneesser”; O.Ind. karkati (uncovered) “lacht”, krákṣamüṇa-, -krakṣa-, -krakṣin- perhaps “knarrend”; common O.Ind. ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation Arm. perhaps as neologism karkač̣ “Rauschen, noise”, karkačem “excessive lachen, roar”; Gk. κέρκαξ ἱέραξ Hes., κερκάς κρεξ τὸ ὄρνεον Hes., κερκιθαλίς ἐρωδιός Hes., κερκίς ...εἶδος ὄρνῑθος Hes., κέρκνος ἱέραξ, ἤ ἀλεκτρυών Hes., κέρκος ... ἀλεκτρυών Hes., κίρκος “ἱέραξ”, κορκόρας ὄρνις. Περγαιοῖ Hes., κρέξ “eine Vogelart”, κέρχνος m. “ hoarseness “ (if from *κερκ-σνος), κέρχνη, κερχνηίς f. “Turmfalke”; Lat. crōciō, -īre and crōcō, -üre “ croak, caw “ (: Ir. crüin, Lith. krokiù, Ltv. krücu, Slav. krakati, compare with -g: Gk. κρώζω, O.N. hrókr); M.Ir. crüin, gen. crüna ‘sow” (“grunzend”; Proto-Celt. *krükni-); cercc “hen” (but Welsh ysgrechf. ‘scream” from O.E. *scrǣ c “clamor”; M.Ir. scrēch ‘scream” from O.N. skrǽ kr); O.Bret. corcid, Bret. kerc”heiz, Welsh crychydd “Reiher”, Ir. corr (*kork-so-) “ crane “; O.Pruss. kerko f. “ aquanaut (bird)”, Ltv. ḱḕrcu, ḱḕrt “ gaggle, cackle, chitchat, talk, snicker, sough, rustle, din, fuss, noise make”, Lith. karkiù, kar̃kti “ burr, croak, caw, gaggle, cackle, chitchat, talk, snicker “, Lith. kirkiù, kir̃kti “ screech, shriek, scream, squawk, cackle, croak, yell (from the Bruthenne)”; Lith. krẽkinuos, -intis “rutting, in heat sein (of swine)”, Ltv. krecêt “hoarse become”; O.Pruss. kracto (lies kracco) ‘schwarzspecht”, Lith. krãkė ds., Lith. kr(i)okiù , kr(i)õkti “röcheln, grunt” (: Lat. crōciō etc.), kr(i)oklỹs “waterfall”, Ltv. krǜ cu, krǜ kt “ croak, caw, schnarchen, röcheln, bawl, blaster”; Lith. kurkiù, kur̃kti “quarren”, Ltv. kùrcu, kùrkt “quarren” (: O.C.S. krъknǫti; changing through ablaut with Lith. kvar̃kti?); compare Mũhlenbach-Endzelin Ltv.-D. Wb II 296, 270, 322; O.C.S. krъknǫti “ croak, caw “ (etc.); R.C.S. krečetъ “Zikade”, Russ. krëk “Aufstehnen”, krečet “Jagdfalke”, Serb. krȅka “clamor the Hũhner or Frösche” (etc.), Cz. škř ek “clamor”, O.Sor. škŕ ekava “Eichelhäher”; Russ. krochálь “Tauchergans”, Bulg. krókon “raven”, Serb. krȍčēm, kròkati “ croak, caw “ (etc.); R.C.S. (etc.) kraču, krakati ds.; in addition slovz. krẽk (*krakъ) m. “raven”. Nasalized: O.E. hringan ‘sound, clink, rattle, clash, clatter”, Eng. to ring “lauten, clink “, O.N. hrang n. “din, fuss, noise”, hringia “läuten”, Lith. krankiù, krañkti “ croak, caw, röcheln”, krankščiù , krañks̀ti ds., Russ. krjákatь “crack, creak, groan, burr, croak, caw “; Toch. В kraṅko rooster, cock; O.Ind. kruṅ, kruñca-, krüuñ ca m. “Brachvogel”. With anl. k̂-: O.Ind. śüri- f. “ein bird”, sürikü “die indische Elster”; Arm. sareak ‘star”; Lith. šá rka, O.Pruss. sarke “Elster”, Russ. soróka, Cz. straka, Serb. srȁka “Elster”; besides O.C.S. svraka, Serb. svrȁka ds., see under. With anlaut. k̂u̯-: Alb. sorrë (*k̂u̯ērnü) “crow” (Jokl, Mél. Pedersen 146); O.C.S. soraka, Serb. svrȁka “Elster”. B. Auf -g-: O.Ind. kharjati “knarrt”, khargálü “ein certain Nachtvogel (owl?)”; Gk. κρώζω “krächze”, κράζω, ἔκραγον, κέκρᾱγα “ croak, caw (of raven), cry”; κάραγὺς ὁ τραχὸς ψόφος οἷον πριόνων Hes.; O.N. hrōkr, O.E. hrōc, O.H.G. hruoh “crow”; N.Ger. harken, Dan. harke ‘sich räuspern”, Swiss harchlen “röcheln”, O.N. hark, skark “din, fuss, noise”, herkir, skerkir “fire” (“*knisternd”), O.N. harka “rant, roister”, N.Ger. harken ‘scratch, scratch, scrape”, harke “ rake “, Ger. Lw. Harke; to O.Ind. kharju- m. (uncovered) “the itchiness, scratch “, khr̥galam. “ crutch “ (?); O.H.G. rachisōn ‘sich räuspern”, O.E. hraca m., hracu f. “throat”, O.H.G. rahho “Rachen”, O.E. hrǣ ca m. “das Räuspern; saliva”, hrǣ can ‘sich räuspern, spucken”, O.N. hrüka m. ‘saliva”; O.N. skrǣ kr m. ‘scream” (*skrēki-), skrǣ kja, skrǣ kta “cry”, skrǫk n. pl. “lie, falsity”, skrǫkva “erdichten, erlũgen”; Lith. kregžde ̃ ‘swallow”, krėge ́ti “grunt”, krogiù “röchle, grunt”. 3. Labial extensions: A. With -p-: O.Ind. kŕ̥patē, Aor. akrapiṣṭa “ lament”; kr̥cchrá- ‘schlimm”; n. “need”, mind. from *kr̥psra-; Pers. särfük “ clangor “, surf (Iran. *sǝrǝfa-) “ cough “; Lat. crepō, -üs and -is, -üre “knattern, knistern, crack, creak”, crepundia, -ōrum “Klappern as Kinderspielzeug, Kastagnetten” (after M. Leumann, Gnomon 9, 240, rather Etruscan); EM3 268; O.N. hrafn “raven”, Run. HrabnaR, O.E. hræfn “raven”, O.H.G. hraban, hram “raven” (M.H.G. also rappe), O.S. naht-ram “Nachteule”; With s-: O.N. skrafa “ babble, chatter “, skraf (and skrap see under) n. “gossip”; O.N. skarfr ‘seerabe”, O.E. skræf ds., O.H.G. scarba, scarva f., scarbo m. ds., Ger. Scharbe; Bret. scrav “Meervogel” is Gmc. Lw.; Ltv. krepēt, krēpēt “dirty, filthy become”, krẽpât “zähen mucus auswerfen” (from “*räuspern”), Lith. skreplénti ds., Ltv. krẽpalas pl., Lith. skrepliaĩ pl. ‘schleimauswurf, O.C.S. kroplją, kropiti “ besprinkle, sprinkle” etc., Russ. kropotátь “drone, grumble, grumpy, surly, sullen sein, sich sorgen” etc. With -b-: O.N. skrap “das Rascheln, gossip”, skrapa “rustle, babble”; Lith. skrebe ́ti “rustle”, O.C.S. skrobotъ “noise”. Nasalized Gk. κρέμβαλα “Kastagnetten”. II. i-basis (s)(k)erei-: O.Ir. scret f., Ir. scread ‘scream” from *skri-zd(h)ü; compare Persson Beitr. I 348; with s-: Bret. screo (*skriu̯ü) “kreischender Meervogel”; O.H.G. O.S. scrīan “cry”, O.H.G. screi n. ‘scream”, N.Ger. schrēwen , Dutch schreeuwen “cry” (*skraiwian), wFlem. schreemen, Eng. scream ds. (*skraimian); without s-: O.N. hreimr “clamor”, O.N. hrīna “cry” (of Schweine); compare Ltv. krī̆ na ‘sow” (also Ir. crüin ds. : Lat. crōcio) and piem. crin (ligur.?) ‘swine”. guttural extensions: A. With -k-: Gk. κρίκε “(das Joch) knarrte, kreischte”; Lith. krykščiù , krỹkšti “ screech, shriek, scream, squawk, cackle, croak, yell “, kriksėti “quaken”; O.C.S. krikъ “clamor”, kričati “cry”; O.N. hegri, O.E. hrügra, O.H.G. heigaro and (h)reigaro, M.H.G. heiger and reiger, Ger. Reiher (*kroikro-, *krikro-), partly with diss. Schwunde of ersten r; Welsh cryg “hoarse”, fem. creg, therefrom creg-yr “Reiher”; eine various Lautnachahmung is Bulg. cъ́rkam “zwitschere, zirpe; cry, spritze” (etc. s. Berneker 132); B. With -g-: Gk. κρῑγή “das Schwirren; creakiness (the Zähne)”, κριγή ἡ γλαῦξ Hes., κρίζω, κρίξαι, κέκρῑγα “ screech, shriek, scream, squawk, cackle, croak, yell, growl “, böot. κριδδέμεν (δδ = γ) “γελᾶν”; Welsh cre (*krigü), dychre (*dī-eks-krigü) “clamor”; derived crë-ydd, crë-yr “Reiher”; O.N. hrīka “ gnash “, hrikta “ screech, shriek, scream, squawk, cackle, croak, yell “; with s-: O.N. skrīkia “Vogelschrei”, as verb “chirp, twitter”, O.E. scrīc “Wũrger”, Nor. skrīka, skreik “cry”, O.S. skrikōn ds., O.N. skrǣ kr ‘scream”; late neologism: Ger. Krickente, Swe. krickand, krikka ds., Dutch kriek, krekel “ cricket, Heimchen”, Fr. criquet ds., Dutch kricken, kreken “Zirpen (from the cricket)”, M.Eng. creken “creak”, Eng. creak ds., Fr. criquer ds.; with s-: O.C.S. skrъgati (i.e. skrъg-) “ gnash “, skrъžьtъ (i.e. skrьž-) “Geknirsche”. III. u-basis (s)k(o)reu-, (s)k(o)rau-: 1. Lat. corvus (see above S. 567); M.Ir. crū “raven” (*krou̯os); N.Ger. schrauen, schraulen, Nor. skryla, ryla “cry”, Nor. dial. skrynia “clatter, noise make, sharp clink; cough”; O.N. skraumi “ bawler, crier, Hanswurst”; N.Fris. skrummel “Getöse, noise, rumor”, Ger. schrummeln “ thunder “, O.N. skrum “gossip; Lith. kriunù, -e ́ti “cough, groan, moan”; perhaps also Toch. В keru “drum”. 2. Dental extensions: With -d-: O.N. hrjóta “roar, bellow, schnarchen, drone, grumble”, O.E. hrūtan ‘schnarchen, pant, sniff, snort”, O.H.G. rūzan, rūzōn “rattle, clash, schnarchen, buzz”; compare O.E. hrot m. “ thick Flũssigkeit, mucus”, etc. under S. 537; M.L.G. schrūten ‘schnarchen, wheeze, prusten”, wfäl. Schrute “Truthenne”, Swe. skryta “brag, boast”, dial. ‘schnarchen”, Nor. dial. skrȳta “pant, sniff, snort, prusten”, skrota (*skrutōn) “brag, boast” (perhaps also O.N. skraut n. “ splendor, jewellery”, skreyta “adorn”, if actually “brag, boast”, compare Nor. skrøyta “adorn, praise, laud, brag, boast”, røyta ds.). With IE -t-: O.N. hryðja f. ‘spucknapf”, Ice. hroði ‘saliva”, Nor. dial. ryda, skryda f. “mucus in Halse”. 3. guttural extensions: With -k-: Lith. krauklỹs “crow”, kraukiù, kraũkti “ croak, caw “, ablaut. kriūk-iù, -ti “grunt”, krùkė “Ghegrunze”; Ltv. kraûklis m. “raven”, kraũḱis ‘saatkrähe”, kraukât “cough, mucus auswerfen (of cattle)”; kraũka f. ‘schleimauswurf”; O.C.S. krukъ “raven” (etc.); Ice. hrygla “rattle in the throat”, M.H.G. rũ(c)heln, Ger. röcheln, Nor. rugde “Waldschnepfe”; in addition probably O.E. hrog “ nasal mucus “; with gemination -kk-: Dan. skrukke “glucksen”, skrokke “chat, prate”, next to which older Dan. krokke “call, shout, cry, from Hũhnern”, M.L.G. krochen “grunt; hoarse cry (of raven)”. With -k̂-: O.Ind. krṓ ś ati, Av. xraosaiti “kreischt, shouts, howls”, O.Ind. krōś a-, klṓ ś a- m. ‘scream, Rufweite”, (: O.E. hrēam “Notruf” from *hrauhma), Pers. xurōs “rooster, cock”; s. W. Schulze Kl. Schr.166. With -g-: Gk. κραυγή “clamor”, κραυγός δρυκολάπτου εἶδος (“kind of Specht”) Hes.; Goth. hruk acc. “das Krähen”, hrukjan “ crow “.
    References: WP. I 413ff., WH. I 275 f., 290, 291 f., 293, Trautmann 128, 139 f., Wissmann nom. postverb. 130 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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